Timeline

 

1877

Born in Le Havre on June 3.

1892

Dufy takes evening classes at the École Municipale des Beaux-Arts. Meets Othon Friesz, and they rent a studio together.

1893–1898

Plein air painting on Sundays. Dufy paints at Honfleur on family trips to his mother’s birthplace and does small family portraits. With Friesz, studies Eugène Boudin at the Musée du Havre, Nicolas Poussin, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Théodore Gericault, and Eugène Delacroix at the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Rouen.

1900

Dufy wins a 1,200 franc annual scholarship from Le Havre authorities for the École des Beaux- Arts, Paris. The academic atmosphere however, is uninspiring, and Dufy is more interested in Paul Gauguin, Vincent Van Gogh, and above all Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet, and the Impressionists on view at the Vollard and Durand-Ruel galleries.

1902

Berthe Weill buys a pastel, and Dufy is included in six group shows at her gallery between 1903 and 1909, and in 1925. Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, André Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck, and Pablo Picasso have pictures at the gallery.

1903

Two paintings by Dufy are exhibited at the Salon des Independants; one is bought by Maurice Denis. Dufy exhibits there regularly until 1911, then in 1913, and sporadically in the 1920s and 1930s.

1905

By this time, Dufy has moved further away from an academic style. At the Salon des Independants of 1905, Dufy is drawn to Fauvism after viewing Matisse’s work: Luxe, calme, et volupté. Dufy recalled in 1925 his revelation at the sight of the painting, “I understood the new raison d’être of painting, and Impressionist realism lost all its charm for me as I looked at this miracle of creative imagination at work in color and line.”

1906

Berthe Weill organizes Dufy’s first one-man exhibition in October 1906. Dufy works with Friesz at Falaise, with Georges Braque at Durtal, and with Marquet at Trouville; he exhibits seven works at the Salon d’Automne, including two Rues Pavoisées.

1907

In order to earn extra money, Dufy begins to work in wood engraving. Spends the summer in Nomandy at Sainte-Adresse, and goes to Martigues and Marseilles in autumn.

1908

Dufy takes a pilgrimage to Estaque, near Marseilles, with Braque. The two painters are enthralled by the work of Paul Cézanne. From that time, Dufy moves away from Fauvism and begins to experiment with Cubism.

1909–1910

With Fernand Fleuret, Dufy visits Provence and then Marseilles. His first wood engravings for Fleuret’s Friperies (1923) and for Guillaume Apollinaire’s Le Bestiaire (1911).

1910

Completes Le Bestiaire woodcuts in a new studio, Rue Linne, and sees Apollinaire daily.  Five plates are shown at the Salon d’Automne, along with prints of La danse, L’amour, La chasse, and La musique.

 

1910–1911

Paul Poiret commissions. Dufy to decorate the Pavillon du Butard and his notepaper at the Maison de Couture.

1911

After a trip to Munich with Friesz in 1909, Dufy continues working in wood engraving.

He illustrates the Après un Voyage à Munich with Friesz in 1909. In 1911, Dufy marries Eugènie Brisson, and moves into a studio at Guelma, that he will keep throughout his life.

In 1911, Dufy meets Paul Poiret, one of the greatest couturiers at the beginning of the twentieth century. Poiret founds the Atelier Martine in April followed by La Petite Usine, with Dufy, at Boulevard de Clichy, where Dufy experiments with textile printing.

Dufy creates his first printed fabrics (Chasseur, Marine, Automne, and Nature morte) and fabrics that contributed to the renown of Poiret. He paints the awning for La Mille et Deuxième Nuit, the Persian fête held in Poiret’s garden.

1912

First four hangings made for Poiret including La danse and La chasse. Execution of several primitive wood engraving series for Emile Verhaeren’s Poemes Legendaires de Flandre et de Brabant (1916), Poiret’s Almanach des Lettres et des Arts (1917), Rémy de Gourmont’s M. Croquant (1918), and for L’Almanach de Cocagne (1920, 1921, and 1922).

Beginning of Dufy’s association with Bianchini-Férier, the prestigious Lyonnaise textile firm. Dufy produces numerous designs for printed and woven fabrics during this collaboration.

 

1913

Dufy is represented at the Neue Secession in Berlin, the International Exhibition of Modern Art (The Armory Show) in New York, and in Chicago, Boston, and Paris.

1914

War is declared, and Dufy drives a van for the military postal service.

1915

Illustrations in Jean Cocteau’s journal Le Mot. Between 1915 and 1919 Dufy creates over 100 fabric designs, assisted by Gabriel Fournier.

1918

Dufy resumes work for Bianchini-Férier that was interrupted by World War I. André

Robert becomes his assistant. Dufy’s first contributions to theater design, as a result of his friendship with Cocteau.

1919

A lengthy stay in Vence, in southern France, where he begins a series of paintings devoted to this location. In this euphoric period following World War I, Dufy is inspired by the light and the colors of the Mediterranean: he visits Rome and Sicily (1922), then Morocco (1925–1926), developing the supple and joyful style that is his own. The same evolution transpires in his prints, where he abandons wood engraving for lithography.

1920

Dufy’s first exhibition at the Salon des Artistes Décorateurs. Scenery with Guy-Pierre Fauconnet for Cocteau’s Le Boeuf sur le Toit, Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, and The London Coliseum. Poiret’s summer collection with Dufy fabrics appears in La Gazette du Bon Ton.

1921

Dufy’s first exhibition of over ninety works at La Galerie Bernheim-Jeune (where he exhibited regularly until 1932).

1922

In June he meets Dr. Roudinesco, one of his greatest future collectors. Décors for the Ballet Frivolant. Travels to Florence, Rome, and Sicily with Pierre Courthion. He has become a successful Parisian figure by this time, and he divides his time rom now on between Paris and southern France.

1923

The first experiments in designing ceramic art with the Catalan ceramist Josep Llorens-Artigas—a collaboration that lasts until 1938. Dufy’s first exhibition in Brussels, at the Galerie la Centaure. It was at this time that Dufy began to work more in watercolor, a medium that allowed him to express himself more freely.

On February 11 he received his first commission from La Manufacture Nationale de la Tapisserie de Beauvais. Dufy’s first visit to London.

1924

Executes the stage design for Roméo et Juliette for the Opéra de Paris.

1925

Dufy creates fourteen wall hangings for Paul Poiret who used them to decorate his barge Orgue at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Moderne. These are later exhibited at the Galerie Barbazanges-Hodebert. Ceramic fountain for La Renaissance pavilion. Designs backdrop for René Kerdyck’s ballet Adieu Paris.

Goes to Morocco with Poiret where he paints a series of watercolors, which he exhibits the following year at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune.

1927

Decorations for the dining room of Dr. Viard in Paris.

Creates an important series of paintings and watercolors of Nice.

1928

His collaboration with Bianchini-Férier lasts until this time.

1928–1929

Mural decorations for Arthur Weisweiller’s villa L’Altana at Antibes.

1930

Travels to England, and paints in Deauville. Ninty-four etchings for Eugène Montfort’s La Belleenfant ou l’Amour à Quarante Ans, published by Ambroise Vollard. Begins collaboration with Marie Cuttoli for tapestries (to 1940) and with Maison Onondaga, New York, for fabric designs (to 1933).

1931

One-man exhibitions in Brussels and Zurich. He begins the illustrations of Tartarin de Tarascon by Alphonse Daudet. Dufy’s first suite of furniture exhibited at Galerie Bernheim-Jeune.

1933

Stays in Nice, Hyères, and Cannes.

1934

Travels to Cowes several times to paint regattas and horse races. He begins a series of watercolors of the châteaux of the Loire (that he completes in 1938), and creates the décor for L’Oeuf de Colomb of René Kerdyck. One-man exhibitions in New York, Brussels, and Prague.

1935

He meets chemist Jacques Maroger, inventor of a medium for oil painting, that produces similar effects of watercolor, by allowing light to pass through the pigments. Dufy continues to use this medium for the majority of his canvases after that. Proposes to decorate the swimming pool of the luxury liner Normandie with Amphitrite, the statues at Versailles, fountains of the Place de la Concorde, beach scenes, etc. Withdraws when the project is thrown open to competition.

1937

Exposition Universelle, Paris: La Fée Électricité, commissioned and begun in 1936, exhibited in the Palais de la Lumière. Dufy refuses to exhibit it in a New York department store, but he later travels to Pittsburgh as a member for the Carnegie Prize jury. Dufy exhibits an important group of thirty-four paintings at the exhibition of Les Maîtres de l’Art Indépendant at the Petit Palais. During a stay in England, he paints scenes of the coronation of George VI, then makes his first trip to the United States, to participate in the jury of the Carnegie Prize.

1938–1940

Mural decoration for the Palais de Chaillot theater bar: La Seine, L’Oise, et la Marne, showing the course of the Seine from Paris to its estuary at Le Havre. One-man exhibitions in New York, Chicago, and London. Returns to Nice.

1939

Decorative panels for the Singerie at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, showing outstanding French explorers and Kipling, etc. When war is declared, Dufy continues to work on this and the Palais de Chaillot murals at Saint-Denissur-Sarthon.

1940

Dufy takes refuge in Nice, then Perpignan, where he stays with his doctor, Dr. Nicolau, then

in a studio on Rue Jeanne d’Arc. Travels to Aix-les-Bains to take a cure, where he meets Gertrude Stein and visits her at Culoz. He is becoming increasingly crippled by arthritis.

1941

On the recommendation of Jean Lurçat, Dufy completes two cartoons for the tapestries Collioure and Le bel été at Aubusson. Louis Carré becomes his dealer. Dufy begins the Orchestre series.

1942

Participated in the group exhibition Young French Painters and Their Masters in Switzerland, and one-man exhibitions at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, in Paris, Lyon, and New York.

1943

Paints at Vernet-les-Bains. Summer at Montsaurès, Haute-Garonne, with Roland Dorgelès where he watches threshers at work and creates the first Dépiquage series.

1944

Carré publishes the volume Drawings and Sketches from the Files and Notebooks of Raoul Dufy.

1945

Perhaps influenced by the music that inspired his Orchestre series, Dufy moves towards a different kind of painting: “tonal painting.” While retaining his previous independence of outline and color, along with his extraordinarily agile style and inventiveness, he abandons his three-color restrictions and begins to paint the entire picture as an integrated whole, which in some paintings is black, the color properties of which he rediscovers after thirty years. He begins his Cargo noir series.

1946

Creates a suite of furniture for Marie Cuttoli and two tapestries for Atelier Tabard, Aubusson, exhibited at the Musée National d’Art Moderne in La Tapisserie Française du Moyen-âge à Nos Jours. Gertrude Stein’s text Raoul Dufy appears in a Brussels art journal. Dufy exhibits at the Salon des Tuileries, as he would in 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, and 1953.

1947

Large exhibition at the Galerie Louis Carré in Paris.

1948

Cocteau writes a monograph on Dufy. Tapisseries de Haute-lisse shown at the Galerie Louis Carré. May 2, 1948–April 11, 1950: conversations with Pierre Courthion in Perpignan that form the basis of his definitive study of 1951. Continues Cargo noir series until 1952.

1949

Exhibition at the Galerie Louis Carré in New York. The publication by Camille Flammarion of Jean Cocteau’s book on Dufy. Travels to Spain.

1950–1952

Dufy has been suffering from polyarthritis since the late ’30s, and he travels to the United States for the first cortisone treatments from Freddy T. Homburger, at the Jewish Memorial Hospital and Rehabilitation Center, Boston. A new exhibition at Galerie Louis Carré in New York and a traveling exhibition in several American cities. Designs scenery for Jean Anouilh’s Ring Round the Moon, produced by Gilbert Miller in New York. A stay in Tucson, Arizona, where he discovers the positive effects of a dry climate on his arthritis pains.

1951

Exhibits in New York, Pittsburgh, Washington, Richmond, and Chicago. Paints jazz bands in Mexico.

1952

The largest exhibition of works by Dufy is organized at the Musée d’Art et d’Histoire de Genève. He receives the first prize for painting at the twenty-sixth Venice Biennale, where he exhibited forty-one paintings. Dufy donates the prize money to Charles Lapique for a stay in Venice, and to Italian Emilio Vedova for a trip to France. Settles in Forcalquier, Basse-Alpes. O’Hana Gallery holds an exhibition of Raoul Dufy racecourses, the first important post-war showing of his work in London. Numerous one-man exhibitions in New York, Edinburgh, Paris, and Copenhagen.

1953

Death of Dufy on March 23 in Forcalquier. He is buried on March 25 in the Cemetery of Cimiez, Nice.

Three months later, the Musée National d’Art Moderne de Paris creates the first large retrospective devoted to the artist.

 

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